Today, we rarely think about what a long and difficult journey humanity has passed in its quest for active pastime not only in the daylight but in the dark hours. Throughout the time that man exists he invented and continues to invent new ways of artificial lighting on the main of which will be discussed in our article.
Fire can rightly be called the first example of use of artificial lighting. Data about when people learned about the existence of the fire and began to produce his own strongly disagree, and vary in the interval from 15 million to 200 thousand years BC it is Known that originally the fire was received from the smoldering embers that remained after the forest fires that frequently occurred during storms from lightning strikes. And for a long time it was the only way to get fire.
Much later, primitive man learned to make fire yourself with polosukhina sticks and grass that has become a powerful impetus to the development of civilization and allowed the man to greatly extend the waking hours.
Subsequently, the fire transformed into a torch and such kind of artificial lighting existed long enough.
For all time of its existence, the candle has come a long way of development. Its prototype was the tank filled, Muslims splinter and later fiber or cloth as a wick.
Until the XV century candles were made by saturating fat papyrus paper some porous plants. Gradually began to gain popularity beeswax and cylindrical shape for casting. These candles have become very popular and was used without changes for a long time.
In the nineteenth century there were several more discoveries thanks to which we have a modern candle. First, as a basic material was discovered stearin candle making which was put on stream. Around the same time, wicks began to impregnate boric acid which allowed to manually remove the remnants.
By the end of the XIX century, chemists were able to identify oil paraffin wax from which to this day is made the most of candles.
People thought separated from the wood chips and set fire to it. A simple light source was widely used and was used by peasants in remote villages until the XX century To obtain the torches used a knife, cleaver or hatchet. To increase the amount of light at the same time lit a few torches and placed them in a special stand svetec under which were placed a container of water. It performed two functions reflect and multiply so light and served as protection from possible fires.
Oil kerosene gas lamp
The first two types of lamps very similar in principle of operation which